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Risk mitigation in P2P Lending

Table of Content


Personal guarantees in P2P lending

What is a buyback guarantee, and how does it work?

Loan to value (LTV) explained

What is diversification, and how can it mitigate risk?

What are provision funds, and how can they mitigate risk?



No branches exist for P2P lending platforms. Retail lenders lend to borrowers with idle funds. As a result, borrowers' expenses are reduced, and lenders' returns are raised. The platforms generate revenue by charging both lenders' and borrowers' fees.

If you're looking for an alternate investment option, P2P lending is an excellent choice. Lenders receive incredible paybacks and good profits. As in any other investment instrument, there are risks that investors have to face. Fortunately, there are multiple risk mitigation mechanisms such as personal guarantees, group guarantees, buybacks and more.

Personal guarantees in P2P lending

The legal commitment made by a person to pay back credit given to a company for which they are partners or any executive is referred to as a "personal guarantee." Offering a personal guarantee entails taking personal financial responsibility for the remaining balance if the company cannot pay the loan. Personal contracts provide credit lenders an additional layer of security that they will be paid back.

Procedure for Personal Guarantees

In credit agreements, personal guarantees are used to guarantee business capital. They are typically employed by start-ups and small businesses and people with insufficient credit histories to qualify for a mortgage and other forms of credit on their own. Whenever a personal guarantee gets offered, the company's owners promise to repay a loan with their own money if the business can't. In other words, the main or owner of the firm signs the credit application as a co-signer.

This is how it goes. If the firm is too new or has a poor credit history, lenders may ask business owners, including executives, to offer a personal guarantee to obtain loans. The fundamental foundation for underwriting is the business owner's credit history and profile, which are included in the credit application. The applicant supplies the (SSN) Social Security Number during a hard credit inquiry and information about their income whenever a personal guarantee is used. In addition to the company's financial statements and employer identification number (EIN), this information is provided.

As part of a personal guarantee, an executive also may promise their assets, such as bank and savings accounts, automobiles, and real estate, and consent to repay a debt with personal funds if the company cannot make payments. Business owners now have easier access to financing, and since creditors can legally seize the debtor's assets, this lowers their risk. Additionally, it enhances the terms determined by the underwriting process' profile of the person and the business.

The legal commitment made by a person to pay back credit given to a company for which they are a partner or executive is referred to as a "personal guarantee." Offering a personal guarantee entails taking personal financial responsibility for the remaining balance if the company cannot pay the loan. Personal contracts provide credit lenders an additional layer of security that they will be paid back.

What is a buyback guarantee, and how does it work?

In P2P borrowing buyback guarantee is a promise made about a particular loan by the loan originator. The loan originator must purchase back the loan if repayment on that specific loan is postponed for longer than a predetermined period, often 60 days.

Lending firms typically issue corporate debt at a rate similar to what we, the crowdlending investors, pay them in interest to raise liquidity. However, releasing bonds is a costly and rigid alternative. Some people offer loan shares in exchange for the commitment to purchase them back from the borrower should they fail to make their debt payments.

How does it work?

High-risk loans are arranged at excessive interest rates and divided into shares by P2P platforms. They then offer investors a substantially lower interest rate when selling these shares to them.

The creditor can boost their liquidity by reselling such loans, enabling them to issue more high-yield loans. Once the actual interest expense by the borrower is subtracted from the interest rate charged to the investor, the loan originator keeps the difference.

In the case below, the investor obtains a set 12% interest rate while the overall interest rate is 60%.

Given that great-interest loans are frequently offered to investors at rates between 10% and 11%, and that the borrower of short-term loans often pays rates between 30% and 70%, this may be a very lucrative business for these loan originators. However, the loan provider will also be responsible for paying off any past-due debt from their portion.

Loan to value (LTV) explained

The loan-to-value ratio (LTV), based on the market value of assets pledged as collateral, establishes the maximum amount of a secured loan. If the borrower cannot repay the loan, the borrower grants the lender a claim to an asset (for a secured loan).

The normal price that will be paid for the item on the market between two different parties is the market value of the asset. You'll have a better chance of getting a bigger loan if the thing you're using as collateral is highly liquid and reasonably simple to turn into cash.

What is the loan-to-value ratio's calculation formula?

Sum of the secured loan/Market value of the security

Divide the requested loan amount by the asset's market value, which the firm provides the lender as security, to determine the loan-to-value ratio.

If the asset has limited liquidity, or it could take some time until the financial institution has the money, the market value may be reduced. This time frequently entails additional expenses, such as employing a real estate agent to examine a building. The institution reduces the market value to account for that.

Depending on the situation and the financial institution, an asset may be valued at a different market price.

What is diversification, and how can it mitigate risk?

By spreading investments over numerous financial instruments, sectors, and other categories, diversification is an approach to lowering risk. By making investments in many industries that would each respond to the same occurrence differently, it seeks to limit losses.

According to most investing specialists, diversification is the most crucial element of achieving long-term financial goals while avoiding risk, even if it does not guarantee against loss. Here, we examine the reasons behind this and how to diversify your portfolio.

Three ways for diversification that might reduce risk

Developing a diverse portfolio can assist you with risk management. Here are 3 diversification tactics to take into account when choosing your investments:

  • Invest across several asset types. The majority of your portfolio should consist of stocks and bonds. There are many different asset types included in those broad groupings, though. For instance, the market capitalization of stocks varies. Within each of these market capitalization groups, they are further distinguished into growth and value categories. Bonds can be municipal (tax-free), investment-grade, or below-investment-grade bonds. Lower-grade bonds sometimes exhibit performance traits similar to equities, according to Haworth. Thus, they offer less diversification advantage to an investment portfolio than purchasing high-quality bonds.

  • Possess assets that span several industries. Diversification across different businesses within a portfolio allocation helps reduce risk.  The profitability of your portfolio will suffer if the technology industry underperforms other market segments. Other sectors also hold loyal to this. Positioning your types of economics across various industrial sectors can assist performance to remain stable in various market conditions.

  • Add international investments to the mix. In the global equity market, foreign equities account for around 40% of the total value. Diversifying into international equities offers returns that frequently differ from those of American stock markets and takes advantage of nations that can be on different growth trajectories than the local economy. It creates the possibility of brand-new chances to gain from global expansion.

What are provision funds, and how can they mitigate risk?

A provision fund is known as a buffer that is made up of money that is set aside by a platform that facilitates peer-to-peer lending. In most cases, the funds come from consistent inflows from loans already extended to borrowers; however, they may also be collected through the interest rates investors have received on loans.

The money set aside in the provision fund's buffer is earmarked for investors if actual capital losses occur due to a loan going into default or delayed or missed payments on a loan that is currently being serviced. However, investors need to determine with one hundred percent certainty how much of their loss, if any, would be covered by the provision fund.

Provision fund is almost often held in the form of cash, although in exceptional circumstances, it may also be distributed in the form of many other assets. The money is kept safe within a specialized unit shielded from any potential operational dangers that may arise from either the platform or the corporation that operates it.

How Does It Work to Have a Provision Fund?

Provision funds can function because they collect a margin deducted from the amounts borrowers and/or investors pay into the provision fund.

In the case of the investors, it is often taken from the interest prices they get from the loans in which they have invested. When it comes to borrowers, the amount that they will be required to pay is determined by their risk profile. The higher the risks involved with lending the money, the bigger their obligatory contribution will be to the provision fund.

According to what has been said above, the size of a platform's revision fund should increase in proportion to the size of a platform's portfolio and the number of repayments received by borrowers using the platform.

If the loan is not repaid, the provision money is supposed to be distributed to the investors. Nevertheless, the amount of money paid out is unknown because, in most instances, it will be handled according to the directors' preferences for each platform.


The primary components that comprise the mitigation strategy are mitigation goals, activities, and an action plan for the strategy's execution. These give the framework to identify steps to decrease the risk of hazards and prioritize and implement those actions.